Coimbatore District is one of the districts of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The headquarters of the district is Coimbatore city. It is located in the western part of the state in the Kongu region. The district lies between 10” 10? and 11”30? Degrees of the Northern latitude and between 76” 40? and 77” 30? Degrees of the Eastern longitude. The town situated 411 meter 6 above the mean sea level. It is bounded by Palghat district of Kerala on the west and by Idukki district of Kerala in the South. Coimbatore shares its borders with Tirupur in the East and Nilgiris in the North. A small portion of Erode district shares the border near Puliampatti in the North East. It is about 500 Kms away from Chennai and 335 Kms from IT City, Bangalore.
Coimbatore, located in the state of Tamil Nadu, is an important industrial cluster in India. The industrial activities in the cluster developed in the 1930s, with the setting-up of many textiles and spinning units since the local weather was suitable for yarn processing. Initially, the metal casting industry flourished in Coimbatore to cater to the needs of the local textile machinery manufacturers. Subsequently with the start of pump manufacturing in Coimbatore in 1930 and electric motors in 1937, it became an important cluster for manufacture of monoblocks, domestic pumps and subsequently submersible pumps.
In 1970s, the wet-grinder was developed in Coimbatore for grinding of rice and lentils used in local recipes. The motor and drive-system of wet-grinders use casting components. Till date, the cluster is by far the largest producer of wet-grinders in India. Subsequently, major automobile manufacturing units like came up in surrounding areas like Hyundai, Honda, Leyland, Allwyn Nissan, Pricol, L&T, LMW and Mahindras. The setting-up of these automobile units created a great demand for castings as well.
The major raw materials used include base metals (pig iron, steel, borings, scrap and foundry returns) and alloys (ferro-silicon, ferro-manganese, iron sulphide, silicon carbide, etc). In addition, small quantities of other metals like copper and tin are added for special grades and SG iron castings.
There are about 535 foundry units in Coimbatore cluster. They are scattered both within and outside the city. Some of larger geographical concentration of foundry units are Arasur, Annur, Avinashi Road, Ganapathy, Kanuvai, Manikkampalayam, Mettupalayam, Peelamedu and SIDCO Industrial Estate and. These areas have been depicted in figure 1.0. About 15 foundries are of large-scale, 70 in medium scale and balance in small and micro category. The production of castings of the cluster is about 2,000 tonne per day (about 0.6 million tonne per annum).
The foundry industry employs about 10,000 direct employees. The estimated turnover of the foundries in the cluster is approximately Rs 3,400 crore per annum. Several of the foundries in the cluster are of captive type i.e. they produce castings for use in the end-products being manufactured by the firm for different end-use applications. There are also a number of jobbing foundries which manufacture a diverse range of castings as per market orders.
The Erode district lies between 10°36'and 11°58'degrees of northern latitude and between 76°49' and 77°58' Degrees of the Eastern Longitude. It has an area of 5,722.64 sq.kms and is bounded by Karnataka State in the North, Udhagamandalam District in the North West, Coimbatore, Tirupur District in the West, Tirupur District in the South, Karur District in the South East and Namakkal, Salem districts in the East.
Erode district predominantly agriculture in nature is emerging gradually but steadily as an Industrially Promising District. Erode was previously a part of Coimbatore District and it has been bifurcated from Coimbatore District on 17th September 1979 as a new district. Erode is known for the biggest textile shandy for marketing the powerloom and handloom products.
This cluster is 50 years old and started by Tamil Nadu State government by establishing a ceramic manufacturing industry with an aim to create a local ceramic industrial hub for the state. Considering the availability of relevant raw material, a skill development institute, institute of ceramic technology was also established to create pool of trained person in the area. Vriddhachalam cluster had more than 100 down draft kilns at one time engaged in manufacturing different ceramic and refractory products. Slowly, cluster also developed capacity to make large category of artisan and handicraft products.
At present there are about 300 small and micro units in the cluster engaged in production of various types of ceramic and refractory products. The units are engaged in the manufacture of a variety of ceramic products like insulators, electrical items and decorative items. The total annual production is estimated to be 60,000 tonne. Some of the primary products in the cluster are given below.
- Ceramic insulator
- High Alumina refractory bricks
- Ceramic art-ware products
- Chemical porcelain
- Abrasive products (grinding media)
- Refractory filters for steel industries
- Assorted tiles
- Bottom boring set for steel industries
- Bed material for boilers
- Artisan products (Toys, terracotta, small lamps)
The ceramic and refractory units in Vriddhachalam cluster were initially using either fire wood for firing in downdraft kilns. With the technology up gradation, cluster has started using tunnel, shuttle, rotary as well as downdraft kilns. Apart from fire wood, the cluster extensively uses Light Diesel Oil (LDO) and Rubber Process Oil (RPO) for firing kilns. A Few units use imported coal from Australia and limited use of pet coke is also started as well. Electricity requirements at cluster level are mainly met through grid – Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Limited (TANGEDCO). The unit has LT connection. The power failure is generally quite low. Estimation of energy consumption indicates thermal energy accounts for 99% and electrical energy about 1% of total energy consumption.
Tirupur is a city in the region of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Tirupur is the administrative headquarters of Tirupur district and the fifth largest urban agglomeration in Tamil Nadu. Located on the banks of Noyyal River, it has been ruled at different times, by the Early Pandyas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Mysore Kingdom and the British. It is situated at the center of the South Indian Peninsula, about 450 kilometres (280 mi) southwest of the state capital Chennai and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of Coimbatore. Tirupur is administered by municipal corporation which was established in 2008 and the total area of the corporation is 159.6 km2 divided into 60 wards. Tirupur is a part of the Tirupur constituency that elects its member of parliament.
The town of Tirupur, near Coimbatore, is a leading textile cluster in India. The entire town’s economic activity is centred around the manufacture of readymade garments, ranging from cotton knitwear to winter apparel. There are an estimated 3200 MSMEs in the cluster, specializing in different aspects of the production process like dyeing, compacting, knitting, embroidery, bleaching, stitching and finishing. A majority of units do job work against orders from export houses, which in turn cater to the requirements of overseas brand marketers.
Tirupur is a major textile and knit wear hub contributing to 90% of total cotton knit wear exports from India. The textile industry provides employment to over six lakh people and contributed to exports worth 200 billion (US$3.0 billion) in 2014-15.
Tirupur, a small township 60 kilometers away from Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu is probably the hallmark of the success stories of Indian clusters and is popularly known as Banian City / Knit City. Tirupur has been the centre of textile business since 1870, which catered the mills set up by the colonial rulers to counter the high cost of labor in the European mills, especially that of Manchester. This township started with the production of low valued cotton hosiery items mainly the undergarments during the 1920’s and started with exports from the year 1974.
There are around 700 active exporters and 1700 domestic garment suppliers at Tirupur. There are more than 2000 small units, which specialize in knitting, compacting and calendaring, bleaching, dyeing and embroidery, provide support to the manufacturers and exporters. T-shirts, Pullovers, Ladies wear, Polo Shirts, Sportswear, Sweat shirts, Children garment, Nightwear, Home Furnishing and Industrial Fabric are the main products of Knitwear industry of Tirupur.
Today, it is one of the important garment clusters in India, providing employment to more than 3,00,000 people directly and indirectly. It is earning considerable amount of foreign exchange by contributing more than 50% cotton knitwear exports from India. Tirupur mainly exports to European Union, the United States of America, Canada, Japan and Middle East. Continuous business growth, outstanding performance and by taking self initiatives to address issues affecting growth of business on their own without waiting for the Government support are the key factors responsible for present condition of Tirupur knitwear cluster.