Cluster Profile

The Pune cluster, located in western Maharashtra has developed into a manufacturing center for automobiles and auto ancillaries, such as forging. The major raw materials used in the forging units include carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, aluminium, special steels, non-ferrous metals and titanium. The products after forging are heat treated and machined for use in various types of automobile and engineering products. There are around 70 MSME units (50 forging and 20 heat treatment) operating in Pune cluster.

Different energy sources used are electricity, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Light Diesel Oil (LDO), Furnace Oil (FO), and High-Speed Diesel (HSD) are used. The estimated total annual energy consumption of Pune forging and heat treatment units is 24,252 tonne of oil equivalent (toe) in which Furnace Oil has the highest share of 50%. This trend is gradually changing as industries are switching from FO to LPG and Induction furnaces.

Furnace Oil, Light Diesel Oil, Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG) and High-speed diesel are sourced from Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited and Indian Oil. Natural gas is sourced from Maharashtra Natural Gas Limited (MNGL) and electricity is sourced from Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company (MSEDCL). 

The major industry associations in Pune are Association of Indian Forging Industry (AIFI), Pimpri-Chinchwad Chamber of Industries, Commerce, Services and Agriculture (PCCICSA), Maharashtra Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Agriculture (MCCIA), Chakan Industries Association, Pimpri-Chinchwad Small Industries Association and Deccan Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Agriculture Pune (DCCIA)

The government bodies associated with development of MSMEs are Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC), District Industries Centre (DIC), Pune and Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI). Among the financial institutions, Bank of Maharashtra is the lead bank and there are 20 commercial, cooperative and nationalized banks operating in the cluster. SIDBI is the leading financial institution in the cluster. 

Ankleshwar is an industrial town located in the Bharuch district of Gujarat. Ankleshwar is known for manufacturing chemical dyes and pigments (67% units), pharmaceutical products (27% units) and Pesticides (5% units). Large scale industries like Cadila Healthcare Ltd, United Phosphorous Ltd, Asian Paints, Zandu Chemicals Ltd, Sun Pharma, Pfizer, Glaxo Pharma, Atul Paints and Synchem Chemicals have their presence in Ankleshwar. MSME in the cluster manufactures basic chemicals (intermediary products), which are used as raw materials by many medium and large-scale units of the cluster.

Energy cost accounts for around 5~12% of manufacturing cost in these chemical units. The main energy sources are Piped Natural Gas (PNG), Electricity and Firewood. High Speed Diesel oil is rarely used for operating Diesel Generators. Electrical energy is from grid whereas PNG is sourced from Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL), Gujarat State Petronet Ltd (GSPL) and Cairn Energy. PNG is the major source of energy, annual consumption of 324,677 TOE, followed by electricity annually 61,364 TOE and firewood around 1,040 TOE per annum.

The commonly used equipment by these chemical industries are Steam boilers, Thermic fluid heaters, Reaction vessels, Hot air generators, Centrifuge, Press filter, Air compressors, Dryers, Circulation pumps, Chilling system and Electric motors. 

Two major industrial associations active in Ankleshwar Cluster are Ankleshwar Industries Association (AIA) and Panoli Industries Association. The government bodies associated with development of MSMEs are; Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC), District Industries Centre, Gujarat energy Development agency (GEDA), Gujarat Pollution Control Board and Ministry of Environment and Forests. Among the financial institutions, Bank of Baroda is the lead bank apart from 25 nationalized, co-operative and commercial banks. SIDBI is also operational in Ankleshwar through its Baroda branch.

Tirunelveli cluster is located in southern Tamil Nadu. It is well endowed with minerals like limestone. Limestone is available in Rastha, Thalaiyoothu, Sankarnagar and Padmaneri. The location of cluster is strategic with access to several industries having demand for industrial grade lime. In the cluster there are 79 industries with 192 kilns and having installed capacity of 380 TPD.  The operating capacities ranges from 4-10 TPD per industry and annual production by the cluster is about 150 TPD (55,000 TPY). Burnt lime, Cempowder and Dolomite powder are the main products manufactured by the units in the cluster.

Energy accounts to a sizeable portion of manufacturing cost in the lime production units. The main energy sources are wood-based Charcoal and Grid Electricity. Diesel Generators also found to be used in a few units. Grid Electricity supply in the cluster is from TANGEDCO (Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Ltd.) and the average electrical energy consumption is 52 kWh/ton of lime. Charcoal is sourced from local suppliers and its average consumption is 184.8 Kg/ton of lime. The commonly used equipment’s by these limekiln clusters are Crushers, Blowers and Pulverizers.

The major industrial association in the cluster is Tirunelveli (District) Lime Manufacturers Welfare Association, which represents half of the industries in the cluster. The government bodies associated with development of MSMEs are District Industries Centre (Department of Industries & Commerce), Department of Mines and Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board. Among the financial institutions, Indian Overseas Bank and the Tamil Nadu Industrial Investment Corporation (TIIC) are the lead banks. TIIC is main bank involved in financing the lime kiln sector.

The Department of Geotechnology of the Manomanian Sudaranar University in Tamil Nadu is a key research institute, it has a fully equipped remote sensing and GIS laboratory which is accessible for survey of mines and testing of limestone.  On a national level, the Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee has carried out Research and Development in small scale lime kilns.

Kolhapur is situated in the southwest corner of Maharashtra and is an industrial hub comprising over 1,000 energy intensive industries like, foundries, engineering spares, sugar industries, textile mills, automotive etc. There are nine industrial estates in Kolhapur, of which three are Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporations (MIDC) and six are corporate industrial estates. Out of the 300 foundries present in Kolhapur, 250-275 units are present in the Kolhapur district and 20-25 units are in Sangli district. Foundry uses two main forms of energy: coke and electricity. Foundries using Induction furnace have electricity as main energy source whereas the industries using cupola furnace have coke as main source of energy. Melting is the major energy consuming area and accounts for around 70% of total energy. Other processes in a foundry such as mould and core preparation, sand preparation, machining, shot blasting, lighting etc. accounts for remaining 30% of energy consumption. The average energy consumption for melting in induction furnace is 600- 700 KWH whereas, in case of cupola, the average coke to melt ratio is observed to vary from 1:8 - 1:9. The estimated total annual energy consumption of Kolhapur cluster is 1,185 million kWh of electricity and 128,111 tonnes of coke. Electricity is supplied by the Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited (MSEDCL) and Coke is being supplied from various sources which include SesaKembla Goa, Gujarat NRE, and some suppliers in Nagpur. The major industry associations in Kolhapur are Institute of Indian Foundrymen (IIF), Kolhapur, Kolhapur Engineering Association (KEA), Gokul Shirgaon Manufacturers Association (GOSHMA), Shiroli Manufacturers Association of Kolhapur (SMAK), Manufacturers Association of Kagal Hatkanangale (MAKH) and Ichalkaranji Engineering Association. The government bodies associated with development of MSMEs are District Industries Centre (DIC), the MSME testing laboratory, and government polytechnic. The Bank of India (BOI) is the lead bank in the Kolhapur district with seven branches apart from which there are about 20 commercial, cooperative, and nationalized banks operating in the cluster. There are also various financial institutes (FI) in Kolhapur out of which SIDBI is the leading FI.

Faridabad is situated in the southeast corner of Haryana at a distance of 25 Kms from Delhi. There are an estimated 364 Medium size units, 7039 Small Size units and 4612 micro size units in Faridabad cluster. The top three industry segments, Automobile Parts, Sheet Metal Components and Fabrication constitute 60% of the units present in Faridabad. The SME units of Faridabad serve as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to Escorts, JCB, ABB, Whirlpool and Bata. Some of the major industrial associations in Faridabad are Faridabad Small Industries Association (FSIA), DLF Industries Association, Faridabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Faridabad Foundry Association and Faridabad Industries Association.

The fuel mix used in the cluster includes Diesel, Electricity, Piped Natural Gas (PNG), Pet Coke, Coal, Furnace Oil and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Electricity is supplied by Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitaran Nigam (DHBVN) and also through open access by Power Traders like Global Energy Ltd, Adani through bilateral tie-ups or Power Exchange (IEX and PXIL). Adani gas is the local city gas distribution licensee in the cluster. Coke is sourced through traders from Gujarat, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu and Furnace oil and diesel are sourced through local dealers for all the oil PSUs.

Among all the industry sectors in Faridabad, Foundry and Forging have the highest percentage contribution of energy costs to the total manufacturing costs. The Foundry sector also has the highest total energy bill as a percentage of turnovers.

The major government bodies associated with MSMEs are Haryana State Industrial Development Corporation (HSIDC), Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA) and Directorate of Industries (DIC). State Bank of India (BOI) is the lead Bank with six branches apart from which there are 16 other national and commercial banks. The main financial institutions in the cluster are Haryana State Industrial Development Corporation (HSIDC), Haryana Finance Corporation and Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI).

The Kundli cold storage cluster is situated in Sonipat district, which is one of the 21 districts of the State of Haryana in northern India and is a part of National Capital Region (NCR). Sonipat is a town and a municipal council in the Sonipat district in the State of Haryana, (India). It comes under the National Capital Region and is also known as an educational city in India. It is situated at 20 kms to the north from Delhi. A municipal council is situated in the Sonipat district in the State of Haryana, India. It comes under the National Capital Region. Sonipat comprises of three sub-divisions namely Sonipat, Ganaur and Gohana and seven blocks (Sonipat, Ganaur, Rai, Kharkhoda, Gohana, Kathura and Mundlana).

The cold storage industries were set up in Sonipat primarily due to the strategic location of the place, which is near to farms (located in Haryana and Punjab) as well as consumer market. Another major factor for existence of cluster is the capital investment subsidy (35% of project costs) scheme of national horticulture board for construction/expansion/modernization of cold storage and storage for horticultural products.

The purpose of cold storage is to strengthen post-harvest storage and marketing infrastructure. Most of the cold storage facilities were established in the cluster under government schemes for development of cold storage and warehouse facilities. Leading cold storage facilities in the cluster includes Kumar Ice & Cold Storage, Ambe Agro & Cold Storage (P) Ltd., R J Cold Storage (P) Ltd., Sabharwal Food Industries (P) Ltd., etc.

There are about 90 cold storage facilities in Sonipat district, of which about 53 facilities are located in Kundli area. The capacity of the cold storage facilities in Kundli varies from 665–8,600 MT. About 50% of cold storage facilities are below 2,500 MT capacity, which are below the average capacity of 2,833 MT per cold storage in the cluster. Average capacity of Capacity 1 (below 2,500 MT) cold storage facility is estimated to be 1,676 MT, Capacity 2 (2,500 to 5,000 MT) is 3,710 MT and for Capacity 3 (over 5,000 MT) is 6,505 MT.

One of the largest and fastest growing MSME clusters in India is located in Faridabad, Haryana. Faridabad is located just 25 km away from Delhi, and is well connected to the rest of the country by rail and road. The development of Faridabad industrial cluster began in 1950s, when numerous large-scale industries were established in the town to manufacture tractors, auto parts, shoes, etc. Many MSMEs were set up to cater to the needs of these large-scale plants for products and processes like castings, auto components, electroplating, heat treatment, etc. Since then, many more large-scale industries have come up in Faridabad/Delhi–NCR, accompanied by a corresponding increase in the number of MSMEs.

The number of MSMEs in the cluster registered a sharp increase from 2006–07 onwards, following the signing of an MOU between the Japanese and Indian governments that year for the Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) Project which passes through Faridabad. Today, Faridabad is one of the leading light engineering industrial clusters in India. There are an estimated 12,015 MSME units in the cluster, of which 38% are micro units, 59% small scale and 3% medium scale units.

About 60% of all the MSMEs in Faridabad falls under three broad industry segments— automobile parts (35%), sheet metal components (14%) and fabrication (11%). The other major industry segments include castings, chemicals and paints, electroplating, forging, heat treatment, industrial fasteners, plastic products, railway equipment, rubber products, and textiles. Several MSMEs function as vendors to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in the automobile sector such as Escorts, Mahindra, Eicher, Yamaha, Maruti, Honda Siel Cars, New Holland, etc.

Faridabad cluster has an estimated annual turnover of over one trillion rupees (INR 106,668 crore) and provides employment to over 0.8 million people. There are over 10 industry associations in Faridabad, comprising a mix of location and industry specific segments. Some of the major associations are: Faridabad Small Industries Association; Faridabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry; DLF Industrial Association; Faridabad Foundry Association; Faridabad Industries Association; and Faridabad Plastics Association.

Other major cluster-level stakeholders and their primary roles are listed below:

  • Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam (DHBVN) — local power utility.
  • Adani Gas Ltd (AGL) — piped natural gas supply utility.
  • HUDA and HSIDC — development of industrial estates, approvals for plot usages, financial services, etc.
  • Academic and R&D institutions — IIF, Faridabad chapter; Manav Rachna International University (MRIU), Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI); and Regional Labour Institute (RLI).
  • Technology providers, local consultants and fabricators who manufacture and install different kinds of equipment.
  • Financial institutions — around 25 banks, including SIDBI are operating in the cluster with a total of over 70 branches.

Varanasi, or Benaras, (also known as Kashi) is one of the oldest living cities in the world. Varanasi`s prominence in Hindu mythology is virtually unrevealed. Mark Twain, the English author who was enthralled by the legend and sanctity of Benaras, once wrote: "Benaras is older than history, older than tradition, older even than legend and looks twice as old as all of them put together".

There are three main tehsil in Varanasi district. First one is Varanasi, second one is Rajatalab and another is Pindra. Total area of the district is 1,535 sq. km. Out of this, 415 sq. km (27.04%) is in Varanasi tehsil and 415 sq. km (27.03%) is in Rajatalab tehsil and 705 sq. km (45.93%) is in Pindra tehsil. As per the census 2011, there are 1,327 revenue villages in Varanasi district. Out of this, 1,258 are inhibited villages and 69 are non-inhibited villages.

Ludhiana is known as the industrial capital of Punjab. The city lies between north Latitude 30°34' and 31°01' and east longitude 75°18' and 76°20'. It is bounded on the north by River Sutlej which separates it from Jalandhar district. Post-independence of India, number of industries started booming in the city to support the agriculturally rich area. Initial development was of agricultural implements, tractor industries. Gradually, Ludhiana witnessed growth in allied industries such as forging, foundry, sheet metal and auto-parts as well.

Forging industry in Ludhiana in the 15th century was supported by providing forged tools for city builders and forged weapons for the battles as the city witnessed lots of battles and clashes between the various empires for power and growth. However, the recent forging industry expansion took place in 1960s to provide forged products to tractor, hand tools and agricultural implementation manufacturers.

Presently, there are about 500 forging industries in Ludhiana producing around 1,640 tonnes of forged products per day (492,000 tonnes of forged products per year), of which about 25% is produced by about 10 large forging industries. Forging industry provides employment to about 13,000 people. Units are mainly located in Daba road, Saniwal Delo road, Focal point (Phase I-VIII) and industrial areas A, B and C. Major products of the cluster are crank shaft, connecting rods, brake drum, spanners, special tools, etc. Total annual turnover of forging cluster is INR 3,200 crore. A few major forging industries in the cluster are Mahadev Forgings, Sudhir Forgings, Kay Jay Forgings and Sarita Forgings. Major customers to forging units are USHA, Hitachi, Electricity Board, KJ Group, and automobile companies such as TVS, Bajaj & Sons, Sonalika, Swaraj, Mahindra etc.

Ludhiana is an important textile manufacturing cluster located in Punjab. There are around 14,000 MSME units in the cluster, of which 9,800 are micro (70%), 2,800 are small-scale (20%) and 1,400 are medium-sized (10%) enterprises. Knitwear manufacturers (including manufacturers-cum-traders/exporters) form the core of the cluster. The Ludhiana knitwear industry manufactures the entire range of winter and summer wear for men, women and children. The products include high-fashion garments, T-shirts, sweat shirts, pullovers, jackets and grey fabrics. Spinners, dyers and sub-contracting knitting units provide backward process support.

The Ludhiana knitwear industry is highly labour intensive. In large-scale industries, the cluster provides direct and indirect employment to about 400,000 people. The cluster has an annual turnover of around INR 5,000 crore (2007–08) which includes exports worth about INR 1,000 crore. There are around 70 industry associations in the cluster representing various interest groups such as exporters, dyers, readymade hosiery manufacturers, spinners, knitters etc.

Thane is the third most industrialized district in the state. The Thane Belapur-Kalyan industrial belt is the centre of highly sophisticated modern industries. The industrial growth in the district; however, is concentrated in this industrial belt. The district can be divided into three district parts.

The first is the area under direct influence of Mumbai metropolis. This area is more or less suburban to the metropolis and includes Thane, Kalyan and Ulhasnagar talukas where several organized modern industries are concentrated. The second zone comprises the industrially developing areas of Vasai, Bhiwandi, Palghar and Dahanu. The third part includes the rest of the area having conventional village industries, age-old cottage industries and primary processing agro-industries.

There is no major mineral or mining in the district. However, the mining activities in the district are confined to quarrying of stones and sand which is carried on especially at places which are near the urban areas in Kalyan, Bhiwandi and Thane tehsils. Deposits of reddish laterite clay are also found near Gokhivara in Vasai tehsil. The clay is used for making bricks, tiles and cheap red glazed wares.

Sri Ganganagar is situated at the point where the Satluj water enters Rajasthan. The foundation stone of the Gang Canal Head Works at Ferozepur was laid on 05 December 1925, and the work was completed in 1927 by constructing 89 miles of lined canal. The opening ceremony was performed on 26 October 1927. Sri Ganganagar is one of the well-planned cities of India. It is said to be influenced by the town planning of Paris. It is divided into residential blocks and commercial areas which include Dhan Mandi. Residential blocks have large parks for each blocks and community centers and places of worship are at junctions of three or four blocks. Bagri and Punjabi languages are spoken by majority of the population.

The economy of Sri Ganganagar District is dependent on agriculture. The city has cotton ginning and pressing factories, mustard oil mills and sugar mills ltd. It also has spinning and textile factories. Because of its prosperity from agriculture, Sri Ganganagar District is rich in automobiles and has becomes one of the largest automobile markets in India. The climate of Sri Ganganagar varies to extreme limits. The summer temperature reaches up to 50 °C and winter temperature dips just around 0 °C. The average annual rainfall is only 20 cm. Sri Ganganagar district is known as "the food basket of Rajasthan".

Dehradun is the capital city of the State of Uttarakhand in Northern India. The pharmaceutical cluster is located at about 25 kilometers from Dehradun known as “Pharma City” in Selaqui industrial area. The industrial area is spread in about 50 acres of land. The pharmaceutical industries were set up during 2003-04 when a policy stimulus package including new industrial policy and other concessions were announced for the State of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir to encourage the setting up of industry in these states and help in creating jobs.

The major product of the cluster is allopathic formulation in various dosage forms such as tablets, capsules, liquid orals, ointments and injectables. The cluster falls within the Doon valley region, as such the production of bulk drug is restricted by the state environment protection and pollution control board. The tablets are produced by direct compression, dry granulation and wet granulation process. Majority of the units in the cluster procure “Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients” (API) and carry out job work for larger pharmaceutical industries.

The major energy forms used by pharmaceutical units in Dehradun Pharma cluster includes electricity, LPG and HSD/LDO. Electricity from grid is used for different motive loads in the processing sections, chillers and air compressors. Thermal energy in the form of steam/hot water is used for formulation process and drying. HSD/LDO and LPG is primarily used as the fuel in boiler for generating steam. Apart from steam generation, HSD is also used in the DG sets to cater the necessary power requirements during grid staggering.


Surat is one of the largest textile manufacturing clusters in the Indian state of Gujarat. Industrial development in Surat District could be attributed to the presence of a large number of diamond processing, textiles, and chemical & petrochemical industries. During 2006-07, Surat contributed a maximum of 11.5% of Gross Domestic Product to the State. Surat, known as the synthetic capital of India hosts over 600,000 power looms and provides over 12 lakh jobs. It contributes 18% to the total manmade fiber exports and 40% of manmade fabric production in India. Surat has been very successful in attracting a sizeable amount of production.

The Surat cluster accounts for over 18% of the total manmade (synthetic) fibre exports and 40% of manmade fibre production in the country. Surat is renowned for the synthetic sarees and dress materials and there are about 400 industries in the cluster operating over 600,000 power looms and providing employment to around 12 lakh workers. The sarees and dress materials produced in Surat cluster are renowned in the country and abroad, are marketed in India and also exported to various countries. These industries are located at Palsana, Sachin, Pandesara and Surat city Industrial Areas. Majority of the industries have been in operation for the last 15 to 30 years. The main raw material polyester grey cloth is being procured from local polyester producers. Large numbers of small and medium textile processing units are located in Surat.

The cost of energy as a percentage of manufacturing cost varies anywhere between 12% to 15%. Majority of the industries located in Surat are of wet process and a very few units are engaged in the production of grey fabric with power looms. Wet process requires high amounts of thermal energy in the form of hot water and steam, inducing a high share of energy cost. The energy cost is next to the raw materials cost. Processing is the weakest link in the supply chain of textile industry. Majority of the industries in the cluster units are dependent on local technologies of low end and with little investment initiatives and technology up-gradation. The units started recently employing latest technologies and equipments for better quality, production and efficiency. These units are located in Palsana industrial area.

Vapi and Valsad

Vapi Industrial Estate was developed by Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation, came into existence four decades ago i.e. in 1967-68. The estate was developed in phases as 1 st phase, 2nd phase, 3rd phase, 4th phase etc. As per the local association, there are about 308 Chemicals & Dyes industries in the cluster.

Valsad district lies between 72.73* to 73.00* East Longitude 20.07* to 21.05* North Latitude on the world map. Geographical area of the district is 2,939sq. Km. Valsad district is located on the Southern part of Gujarat near Gulf of Cambay in the Arabian Sea. There are five tehsils in the district namely Valsad, Pardi, Umargam, Dharampur and Kaprada. Valsad town is district head quarter for the administration purpose. Vapi located in Pardi tehsil is the core chemical based industries hub in the district. Valsad is famous for its Valsadi mangoes. Focused industry sectors in the district are Chemicals, Textiles, Horticulture and Paper Industries.

There are various types of chemical products that are manufactured in Vapi chemicals & dyes cluster, few of them are Organic/Inorganic chemicals, Specialty chemicals, Disperse dyes, Dye Intermediates, Reactive dyes, Acid dyes, Direct dyes etc. In fact majority of the chemical units in the cluster are manufacturing two or three types of products as per the demand for the products in the market.

The industrial town of Vapi is located in Valsad district of Gujarat. It hosts a major cluster of MSMEs manufacturing chemicals and dyes. The growth of this MSME cluster has been spurred by its proximity to the cities of Surat, Vadodara, Ahmedabad and Mumbai, and by the presence of many large-scale industries in the vicinity including textiles, chemicals, pharma, paper, etc.

Vapi Chemicals & Dyes cluster like many other clusters, was in dire straits in regard to the energy efficiency and conservation. In almost all units, whether big or small, there had been no conscious effort to take up energy conservation and energy efficiency measures as a part of day to day operations. Some of the bigger units had experimented with few parameters to improve the energy efficiency in the units, but the results and outcome was confined to them only. All the units in cluster had been operating in traditional conditions and most of the equipments in cluster were procured from the local suppliers. They are making the equipments by their traditional expertise, which has remained unchanged over the years. The Chemicals & Dyes units in the cluster use Wood, Imported Coal, LDO, Furnace Oil, Ground Nut Briquettes & Natural Gas as fuels for boilers, Thermopacs, Tray Dryers & Spray Dryers. Electricity is used to run reactors, motors, pumps, centrifuges, blowers, fans & Air Compressors etc.


Panipat is located at 29.39°N 76.97°E. It has an average elevation of 219 metres (718 feet). Panipat is situated on Shershah Suri Marg (now known as G.T. road or NH-1), 90 KM north of Delhi. On three sides, Panipat district boundaries touch other districts of Haryana – Karnal in the north, Jind in the west and Sonipat in the south. Panipat district borders the state of Uttar Pradesh across the Yamuna River in the east. Panipat was a part of Karnal district until 31 October 1989.

Panipat, a city located in the state of Haryana, is an important industrial location in India. The industrial activities in the cluster started after the partition of India and Pakistan, when the weaver’s community displaced from Pakistan was facilitated to settle in Panipat. Further, the carpet business evolved as a result of yarn dyeing of woollens in 1970s and 80s. At the same time, power looms were introduced to make bed covers, curtains, and other upholstery clothes. By 1990, many industries started manufacturing blankets. The business of blankets expanded very fast, and in due course, Panipat became famous for blanket market.

Panipat accounts for about three-fourth of total blankets produced in the country. The textile units are involved in manufacturing of cotton durries, carpets (woollen, cotton based and synthetic); furnishings (bed covers, cushion covers, mats, etc.), woollen blankets, and cotton and woollen yarns. A majority of the manufacturers are concentrated in industrial areas in Haryana Urban Development Authorities (HUDA) in Sector 25 (I & II) and Sector 29 (I & II) and Panipat industrial area.

The other enterprises including job work units are primarily located in and around Panipat Town. Some of the leading manufacturers and exporters of home furnishing in the cluster include Abhishek Industries Ltd. (Trident Group), Palliwal Exports, Abhiasmi International Pvt. Ltd, SPJ Textiles Pvt. Ltd (formerly called Flora International), Ravera Textiles, Golden Terry Towel Pvt. Ltd, Aggarsain Spinners Ltd, Anand International, Shivam Exports, Sachdeva Home Furnishing Pvt. Ltd, Vardhman Creations, and Om Overseas.

The raw materials for home furnishing industries are sourced mainly from spinning mills and power loom industries. Procurement of raw material is one of the great concerns of the production processes adopted for home furnishing material to maintain the best quality standards of final product. Home furnishing and carpet manufacturing units are mainly exporting to both developing and developed countries whereas spinning/yarn, processing/dyeing/printing units are processing the intermediate yarn/grey for final product manufacturers.

A few manufacturers also have local market and supply chain system under various reputed brands in India. The major products include floor coverings product, such as durries, woollen carpets, cotton, and synthetic carpet, home furnishings material (bed covers, cushion covers, mats, etc.), fabric blankets, etc. Cotton and woollen yarns produced in the Panipat cluster are utilized by home furnishing and carpet industries located in and around Panipat as well as other cities.

There are about 3,095 micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in the Panipat textile cluster with more than 60% of the industries are involved in home furnishing. About 65% of the units fall under micro category. There are about 200 textile machinery units in the cluster. The breakup of textile units operating in the cluster is given in the following table. Classification of the textile units in Panipat is based on product manufacturing and investment towards plant and machinery.

The estimated annual production of the cluster is valued to be 950 crore. Carpet industries and home furnishing units require raw material, such as yarn and threads and services such as dying and printing, which is catered by local units. The major share of production in textile industries in Panipat is home furnishing product (62%), such as bed sheet, durree, and blanket (polar, cotton, and woollen). Most of the power looms and yarn-processing units are operating to cater to the raw material requirements of home furnishing industries and floor covering industries. There are some integrated units with power loom, yarn processing, dying, and printing facilities. While large industries and export house are selling their products with their brand names, some of the small units are manufacturing products for large brands, such as Bombay Dyeing, Future Group, etc.


The Kundli cold storage cluster is situated in Sonipat district, which is one of the 21 districts of the state of Haryana in northern India and is a part of National Capital Region (NCR). Sonipat is a town and a municipal council in the Sonipat district in the state of Haryana,(India). It comes under the National Capital Region and is also known as a education city in the India. It is 20 kms north from Delhi. And a municipal council in the Sonipat district in the state of Haryana, India. It comes under the National Capital Region. Sonipat comprises 3 sub-divisions namely Sonipat, Ganaur and Gohana and seven blocks (Sonipat, Ganaur, Rai, Kharkhoda, Gohana, Kathura and Mundlana).

The cold storage industries were set up in Sonipat primarily due to the strategic location of the place, which is near to farms (located in Haryana and Punjab) as well as consumer market. Another major factor for existence of cluster is the capital investment subsidy (35% of project costs) scheme of national horticulture board for construction/expansion/modernization of cold storage and storage for horticulture products.

The purpose of cold storage is to strengthen post-harvest storage and marketing infrastructure. Most of the cold storage facilities were established in the cluster under government schemes for development of cold storage and warehouse facilities. Leading cold storage facilities in the cluster include Kumar Ice & Cold Storage, Ambe Agro & Cold Storage (P) Ltd, R J Cold Storage (P) Ltd, Sabharwal Food Industries (P) Ltd, etc.

There are about 90 cold storage facilities in Sonipat district, of which about 53 facilities are located in Kundli area. The capacity of the cold storage facilities in Kundli varies from 665–8,600 MT. About 50% of cold storage facilities are below 2,500 MT capacity, which are below the average capacity of 2,833 MT per cold storage in the cluster. Average capacity of the Capacity 1 (below 2,500 MT) cold storage facilities is estimated to be 1,676 MT, Capacity 2 (2,500 to 5,000 MT) is 3,710 MT, and for Capacity 3 (over 5,000 MT) is 6,505 MT.


The district is named after Ludhiana city which h forms its headquarters. Ludhiana city was founded during the rule of Lodhi on the site of a village called Mir Hota in year 1481. The founders were two army generals namely Yusaf khan and Nihang Khan Lodhi, who settled down to restore peace & order due to disturbances caused by Bilochis. It is general belief that the Ludhiana in the changed form of lodhiana meaning thereby a town of Lodhies.

Ludhiana district falls in central part of Punjab. The district is bounded between north latitude 30° –33’, 31°-1’ and east longitude 75 °-25’ and 76 °-27’. It is bounded on the north by the District Jalandhar & SBS Nagar. To the east it adjoins Rupnagar and Fategarh Sahib District and to the west by Moga District while to the south it is bounded by Branala & Sangrur District.

Presently, there are about 500 forging industries in Ludhiana producing around 1,640 tonnes of forged products per day (492,000 tonnes of forged products per year), of which about 25% is produced by about 10 large forging industries. Forging industy provide employment to about 13,000 people. Units are mainly located in Daba road, Saniwal Delo road, Focal point (Phase I-VIII) and Industrial area A,B and C. Major products of the cluster are crank shaft, connecting rods, brake drum, spanners, special tools, etc. Total annual turnover of forging cluster is Rs 3,200 crores. A few major forging industries in the cluster are Mahadev Forge, Sudhir forge, Kay Jay Forgings and Sarita Forgings. Major customers to forging units are USHA, Hitachi, Electricity Board, KJ Group, and automibile companies such as TVS, Bajaj & Sons, Sonalika, Swaraj, Mahindra etc.

The forging units in Ludhiana cluster are principally known for making components catering to industries including cycle, automobile, machinery and engineering and others. There are about 10 large forging industries in the cluster. Based on their average production levels, the MSME forging units can be categorised as follows:

Micro: 20 tonnes per month

Small: 60 tonnes per month

Medium: 200 tonnes per month.

Majority units (~300) fall under small category, in micro and medium there are 150 and 50 units respectively. The total production of closed or open die forging products in the cluster is about 1240 tonnes per day (about 372 thousand tonnes per annum). Only medium scale forging industries run round-the-clock (three shifts), remaining units are under-utilizing the facility and run at average capacity utilization less than 60%. Major products in cluster include crank shaft, connecting rods, brake drum, auto-parts, spanners, special tools, etc.


Jalandhar provides complete information on the location of the city, its climatic conditions and the economic importance of the city. Spread over a huge area of 3,401 sq. km, Jalandhar is situated between the fertile agricultural land of River Beas and Sutlej. An important commercial hub of Punjab, Jalandhar is placed at a distance of 146 km from Chandigarh. Geographically, Jalandhar is place d between 71º 31' east latitude and 30º 33 north longitude, which is characterized as the dry weather belt and is suitable for cultivating wheat and sugar cane.

Jalandhar, in Punjab is one of the prominent hand tools clusters in the country. The cluster came into existence around the time of Indian independence in 1947, when skilled labourers from Pakistan came and settled there and started manufacturing hand tools. Subsequently, the government of Punjab through Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation (PSIDC) set up an industrial estate on the outskirts of city which is today a hub of hand tools. A substantial quantity of the hand tools production is exported to countries like USA, UK, Germany, Italy, Australia and Russia.

There are around 950 units manufacturing hand tools in the cluster. Out of this, about 900 are in the micro and small scale units and 50 units are in the medium scale. As per industry estimates, the cluster produces about 50,000 tonne of hand tools per annum. Most of the units manufacture an array of hand tools like spanners, screw driver, pliers, bench vices, tyre levers and hammers and so on. A medium scale unit produces around 50-70 tonne of material per month. The production of the unit depends upon the number of hammers installed in the unit. The production of the clusters is presently affected because of frequent power cuts, ranging from 4-6 hours in a day. The estimated turnover of the cluster is approximately Rs 1,000 crores (Rs 10 billion) per annum. The cluster employs about 60,000 direct employees.

There are a number of industry associations in the cluster. The major associations are listed below:

  • Hand Tools Manufacturers Association
  • Jalandhar Hand Tools Manufacturers Association & Steel Fabricators Association
  • Jalandhar Forgings & Engineering Association
  • Federation of Jalandhar Engineering Association
  • Focal Point Industries Association.

These associations play an active role in taking up issues pertaining to the industry with the government.


Chandigarh is a city and union territory in India that serves as the capital of two states, Haryana and Punjab. The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name is derived from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, in the city. It is also referred to as The City Beautiful due to its beautiful surroundings, central grid of gardens, each dedicated to different species of flora. The city of Chandigarh was the first planned city in India post independence in 1947 and is known internationally for its architecture and urban design. The city has projects designed by architects such as Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Jane Drew, and Maxwell Fry.

Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Shivalik range of the Himalayas in northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 44.5 sq mi or 114 km² and shares its borders with the states of Haryana and Punjab. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 30.74°N 76.79°E.It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft). The surrounding districts are of Panchkula and Ambala in Haryana and Mohali, Patiala and Roopnagar in Punjab. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh is also minutes away from its north border.

It also hosts a prominent cluster of engineering industries, with over 600 MSME units manufacturing various kinds of products such as auto and tractor parts (250 units), steel fabrication components (60 units), railway components (85 units), and fasteners (220 units). The Chandigarh cluster is Asia’s largest manufacturer of fasteners. Most of the engineering units are ancillaries/vendors of large tractor/automobile manufacturers (Original Equipment Manufacturers) and the Indian Railways. The major OEMs catered to by the engineering cluster include Mahindra & Mahindra (earlier Punjab Tractors), Swaraj Enterprises, Sonalika Tractors, Preet Tractors and Combines; other automobile and agricultural components manufacturers; and Indian Railways Rail Coach Factory (Kapurthala) and Diesel Loco Modernization Works (Patiala). The turnover of the cluster roughly stands at Rs 3500 Crores and the total energy consumptions stands low at 13,655 tonnes of oil equivalent.


Morbi is a bustling town of Rajkot district (Saurashtra). Just before 10 years Morbi was seen as a remote place of Gujarat with limited resources. Today, it caters a major chunk of the world's ceramic requirement. Major products of this ceramic city are wall tiles, floor tiles, polished porcelain tiles, sanitary ware and mosaic tiles. The leading manufacturers of Morbi are Varmora, Oreva, Argil tiles, Excel ceramics, Face ceramics, Simpolo and Eros sanitarywares.

Morbi is 247 Km away from Ahmadabad. National Highway no 8/A is flanked by ceramic factories and this cluster is spread up to Wankaner city. A large number of small-scale Ceramic manufacturing units are also located around Thangadh. Thus Thangadh, Wankaner and Morbi form the Ceramic triangle.

Morbi ceramic cluster is one of the largest ceramic clusters in India and the manufacturing units in Morbi cater to a large export market also (Middle East, African Countries, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, etc.). In the recent years Morbi has also became an important manufacturing outsourcing zone. Many leading ceramic companies like HR Johnson, Asian tiles and Somani tiles are outsourcing their requirements from Morbi.

The main energy forms used in the cluster units are grid electricity, Natural Gas, Charcoal, Lignite
and small quantity of Diesel oil. Natural Gas is used as fuel in kiln for baking of ceramic products.
In ceramic plants, about 50% of total energy cost is required for kiln. The quality of the Morbi's ceramic products is becoming comparable to that of international standards. Some of these products are also qualifying stringent European norms. This ceramic cluster is categorized as unorganized sector with many of the family owned companies. Morbi's products are considered as medium range products and it is a good place to source the requirements of ceramics.


The name of the city of Rajkot literally means the city of princes. It was probably derived from Raju Sandhi, the co-founder of the erstwhile princely state of Rajkot in 1610. Rajkot has relatively pleasant climate. March to June – summer (20o C to 44o C). July to September rainy season (average rainfall 550 mm), October to February winter (10o to 22o C) Rajkot city is considered the economic, industrial and education hub of the Saurashtra Region. The economy of Rajkot district is chiefly based on the manufacturing and service sector.

Rajkot is located in south west region of Gujarat. There are total eight districts in Saurashtra Region of Gujarat State. Among them, Rajkot district constituted from the Central Region of Saurashtra. Rajkot is one of 26 districts of Gujarat State. Rajkot city is the administrative head quarters of the District. Rajkot is located at 70.20 to 71.40 East longitudes. 20.582 – 23.089 North latitude. Rajkot district is surrounded by Kutch District in North. Surendranagar and Bhavnagar District in East, Amreli and Junagadh District in South. Jamnagar district in West. The district is named after its HQs Rajkot city. Wit the total geographical area of 11203 Km2 Rajkot has average elevation of 134 metre (439 Ft).

Rajkot located in the state of Gujarat encompasses a prominent aluminium foundry cluster. There are about 60 aluminium foundry units located in industrial estates around the main city. These units are known for their ability to make superior precision components and cater to wide range of secondary production industries including investment casting dies, automobile, machinery and engineering, electrical equipment and others.

The Rajkot aluminium foundry cluster mainly caters to the demands of large Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM). For example, Atul Auto Ltd, Mahindra & Mahindra, Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd, Godrej and aluminium extrusion products to various construction companies, etc. Aluminium foundry industries in the cluster provide employment to about 3,000 people directly and indirectly. The estimated total turnover of aluminium foundry industries is about than Rs 400 crore.

Rajkot is one of the prominent bearing clusters in the country. Rajkot is largely known as an industrial hub situated in Saurashtra region of Gujarat state. The Rajkot district located in south-west region of Gujarat state has more than 23,000 industries spreading over an area of around 25 square kilometres in 15 different industrial estates. The manufacturing activities are concentrated in three main industrial estates – Aji, Metoda and Shapar. The current trend of industrial growth is towards engineering and auto ancillaries. The district has various manufacturing units for machine tools, industrial equipments, lathe machines, metallurgical industries, electronics, engineering and auto ancillary sector.

The small and medium industries are dominated by foundries, bearings, engineering & automobile works, textile related units, gold & silver jewellery, handicrafts, spices, medicines, and wall clocks. The Indian bearing industry is estimated at Rs 100 billion. The domestic industry caters to the 74% of total demand for common varieties and sizes. The organized sector units contribute1 around 53% of the industry sales. The imports are about 26% of the total demand of the industry. The bearing industries in Rajkot generate around 15,000 direct or indirect employment. A majority of them is associated with bearing assembly units, roller and cage manufacturing industries.

There are about 150 bearing industries operating in the cluster. Most of these industries are registered under micro, small and medium categories. Majority of the units are either small or micro type. The total turnover of bearing industries in Rajkot is estimated to be around Rs 1500 crores with the annual turnover of majority of industries in the cluster (50%) are around Rs 2-10 crores.


Coimbatore District is one of the districts of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The headquarters of the district is Coimbatore city. It is located in the western part of the state in the Kongu region. The district lies between 10” 10? and 11”30? Degrees of the Northern latitude and between 76” 40? and 77” 30? Degrees of the Eastern longitude. The town situated 411 meter 6 above the mean sea level. It is bounded by Palghat district of Kerala on the west and by Idukki district of Kerala in the South. Coimbatore shares its borders with Tirupur in the East and Nilgiris in the North. A small portion of Erode district shares the border near Puliampatti in the North East. It is about 500 Kms away from Chennai and 335 Kms from IT City, Bangalore.

Coimbatore, located in the state of Tamil Nadu, is an important industrial cluster in India. The industrial activities in the cluster developed in the 1930s, with the setting-up of many textiles and spinning units since the local weather was suitable for yarn processing. Initially, the metal casting industry flourished in Coimbatore to cater to the needs of the local textile machinery manufacturers. Subsequently with the start of pump manufacturing in Coimbatore in 1930 and electric motors in 1937, it became an important cluster for manufacture of monoblocks, domestic pumps and subsequently submersible pumps.

In 1970s, the wet-grinder was developed in Coimbatore for grinding of rice and lentils used in local recipes. The motor and drive-system of wet-grinders use casting components. Till date, the cluster is by far the largest producer of wet-grinders in India. Subsequently, major automobile manufacturing units like came up in surrounding areas like Hyundai, Honda, Leyland, Allwyn Nissan, Pricol, L&T, LMW and Mahindras. The setting-up of these automobile units created a great demand for castings as well.

The major raw materials used include base metals (pig iron, steel, borings, scrap and foundry returns) and alloys (ferro-silicon, ferro-manganese, iron sulphide, silicon carbide, etc). In addition, small quantities of other metals like copper and tin are added for special grades and SG iron castings.

There are about 535 foundry units in Coimbatore cluster. They are scattered both within and outside the city. Some of larger geographical concentration of foundry units are Arasur, Annur, Avinashi Road, Ganapathy, Kanuvai, Manikkampalayam, Mettupalayam, Peelamedu and SIDCO Industrial Estate and. These areas have been depicted in figure 1.0. About 15 foundries are of large-scale, 70 in medium scale and balance in small and micro category. The production of castings of the cluster is about 2,000 tonne per day (about 0.6 million tonne per annum).

The foundry industry employs about 10,000 direct employees. The estimated turnover of the foundries in the cluster is approximately Rs 3,400 crore per annum. Several of the foundries in the cluster are of captive type i.e. they produce castings for use in the end-products being manufactured by the firm for different end-use applications. There are also a number of jobbing foundries which manufacture a diverse range of castings as per market orders.


The Erode district lies between 10°36'and 11°58'degrees of northern latitude and between 76°49' and 77°58' Degrees of the Eastern Longitude. It has an area of 5,722.64 sq.kms and is bounded by Karnataka State in the North, Udhagamandalam District in the North West, Coimbatore, Tirupur District in the West, Tirupur District in the South, Karur District in the South East and Namakkal, Salem districts in the East.

Erode district predominantly agriculture in nature is emerging gradually but steadily as an Industrially Promising District. Erode was previously a part of Coimbatore District and it has been bifurcated from Coimbatore District on 17th September 1979 as a new district. Erode is known for the biggest textile shandy for marketing the powerloom and handloom products.


This cluster is 50 years old and started by Tamil Nadu State government by establishing a ceramic manufacturing industry with an aim to create a local ceramic industrial hub for the state. Considering the availability of relevant raw material, a skill development institute, institute of ceramic technology was also established to create pool of trained person in the area. Vriddhachalam cluster had more than 100 down draft kilns at one time engaged in manufacturing different ceramic and refractory products. Slowly, cluster also developed capacity to make large category of artisan and handicraft products.

At present there are about 300 small and micro units in the cluster engaged in production of various types of ceramic and refractory products. The units are engaged in the manufacture of a variety of ceramic products like insulators, electrical items and decorative items. The total annual production is estimated to be 60,000 tonne. Some of the primary products in the cluster are given below.

  • Ceramic insulator
  • Terracotta
  • High Alumina refractory bricks
  • Ceramic art-ware products
  • Chemical porcelain
  • Abrasive products (grinding media)
  • Refractory filters for steel industries
  • Assorted tiles
  • Bottom boring set for steel industries
  • Bed material for boilers
  • Artisan products (Toys, terracotta, small lamps)

The ceramic and refractory units in Vriddhachalam cluster were initially using either fire wood for firing in downdraft kilns. With the technology up gradation, cluster has started using tunnel, shuttle, rotary as well as downdraft kilns. Apart from fire wood, the cluster extensively uses Light Diesel Oil (LDO) and Rubber Process Oil (RPO) for firing kilns. A Few units use imported coal from Australia and limited use of pet coke is also started as well. Electricity requirements at cluster level are mainly met through grid – Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Limited (TANGEDCO). The unit has LT connection. The power failure is generally quite low. Estimation of energy consumption indicates thermal energy accounts for 99% and electrical energy about 1% of total energy consumption.


Tirupur is a city in the region of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Tirupur is the administrative headquarters of Tirupur district and the fifth largest urban agglomeration in Tamil Nadu. Located on the banks of Noyyal River, it has been ruled at different times, by the Early Pandyas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Mysore Kingdom and the British. It is situated at the center of the South Indian Peninsula, about 450 kilometres (280 mi) southwest of the state capital Chennai and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of Coimbatore. Tirupur is administered by municipal corporation which was established in 2008 and the total area of the corporation is 159.6 km2 divided into 60 wards. Tirupur is a part of the Tirupur constituency that elects its member of parliament.

The town of Tirupur, near Coimbatore, is a leading textile cluster in India. The entire town’s economic activity is centred around the manufacture of readymade garments, ranging from cotton knitwear to winter apparel. There are an estimated 3200 MSMEs in the cluster, specializing in different aspects of the production process like dyeing, compacting, knitting, embroidery, bleaching, stitching and finishing. A majority of units do job work against orders from export houses, which in turn cater to the requirements of overseas brand marketers.

Tirupur is a major textile and knit wear hub contributing to 90% of total cotton knit wear exports from India. The textile industry provides employment to over six lakh people and contributed to exports worth 200 billion (US$3.0 billion) in 2014-15.

Tirupur, a small township 60 kilometers away from Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu is probably the hallmark of the success stories of Indian clusters and is popularly known as Banian City / Knit City. Tirupur has been the centre of textile business since 1870, which catered the mills set up by the colonial rulers to counter the high cost of labor in the European mills, especially that of Manchester. This township started with the production of low valued cotton hosiery items mainly the undergarments during the 1920’s and started with exports from the year 1974.

There are around 700 active exporters and 1700 domestic garment suppliers at Tirupur. There are more than 2000 small units, which specialize in knitting, compacting and calendaring, bleaching, dyeing and embroidery, provide support to the manufacturers and exporters. T-shirts, Pullovers, Ladies wear, Polo Shirts, Sportswear, Sweat shirts, Children garment, Nightwear, Home Furnishing and Industrial Fabric are the main products of Knitwear industry of Tirupur.

Today, it is one of the important garment clusters in India, providing employment to more than 3,00,000 people directly and indirectly. It is earning considerable amount of foreign exchange by contributing more than 50% cotton knitwear exports from India. Tirupur mainly exports to European Union, the United States of America, Canada, Japan and Middle East. Continuous business growth, outstanding performance and by taking self initiatives to address issues affecting growth of business on their own without waiting for the Government support are the key factors responsible for present condition of Tirupur knitwear cluster.